A stock market, equity market, or share market is the aggregation of buyers and sellers of stocks (also called shares), which represent ownership claims on businesses; these may include securities listed on a public stock exchange, as well as stock that is only traded privately, such as shares of private companies which are sold to investors through equity crowdfunding platforms. Investment in the stock market is most often done via stockbrokerages and electronic trading platforms. Investment is usually made with an investment strategy in mind.
How it works?
The concept behind how the stock market works is pretty simple. The stock market lets buyers and sellers negotiate prices and make trades.
The stock market works through a network of exchanges — you may have heard of the New York Stock Exchange or the Nasdaq. Companies list shares of their stock on an exchange through a process called an initial public offering, or IPO. Investors purchase those shares, which allows the company to raise money to grow its business. Investors can then buy and sell these stocks among themselves, and the exchange tracks the supply and demand of each listed stock.
That supply and demand help determine the price for each security, or the levels at which stock market participants — investors and traders — are willing to buy or sell.
Buyers offer a “bid,” or the highest amount they’re willing to pay, which is usually lower than the amount sellers “ask” for in exchange. This difference is called the bid-ask spread. For a trade to occur, a buyer needs to increase his price or a seller needs to decrease hers.
This all may sound complicated, but computer algorithms generally do most of price-setting calculations. When buying stock, you’ll see the bid, ask, and bid-ask spread on your broker's website, but in many cases, the difference will be pennies, and won’t be of much concern for beginner and long-term investors.
Historically, stock trades likely took place in a physical marketplace. These days, the stock market works electronically, through the internet and online stockbrokers. Each trade happens on a stock-by-stock basis, but overall stock prices often move in tandem because of news, political events, economic reports and other factors.
- Stocks can be a valuable part of your investment portfolio.
- Owning stocks in different companies can help you build your savings, protect your money from inflation and taxes, and maximize income from your investments.
It's important to know that there are risks when investing in the stock market. Like any investment, it helps to understand the risk/return relationship and your own tolerance for risk.
Thus, we can say that stock market is a good opportunity for statement but it must be done wisely and one must understand all the risks and benefits of investing in share market or stock market before investing.