Abstract

Early reports from Lombardy in northern Italy suggest about 50% of patients given Continuous positive airway pressure CPAP have avoided the need for invasive mechanical ventilation. Patients treated with CPAP has to wear a face mask during treatment which is connected to a pump (CPAP machine) that forces air into the nasal passages at pressures high enough to overcome obstructions in the airway and stimulate normal breathing. The airway pressure delivered into the upper airway is continuous during both inspiration and expiration. Our innovative machines deliver a steady, continuous stream of pressurized air to patient's airways to prevent them from collapsing and causing apnea events. However, the use of CPAP machines in patients with contagious respiratory infections has raised some concern, as any small leaks around the mask could spray droplets on medical staff.( add Hoods like feature to make it save).Hoods, where pressurized oxygen is pumped in via a valve, are also being commonly used to treat Covid-19 patients, partly because they reduce the risk of airborne transmission of the virus from droplets in the breath. Inspiration India, which only spends about 1 per cent of its gross domestic product on healthcare, has allocated fewer than 20,000 ventilators for the treatment of Covid-19 patients. According to a Johns Hopkins report, the US, which is trying desperately to procure more of the life-saving devices for its significantly smaller population, has about 160,000 ventilators. The chief of one of India’s largest private hospital chains has warned that the country faces a critical shortage of ventilators and intensive care unit staff if coronavirus infections rise rapidly. India is rushing to contain the coronavirus outbreak after confirmed cases leapt by 250 per cent in less than a week to almost 5,000. Experts fear that authorities are underestimating the scale of the crisis and that the actual number of infections is far higher. India, they point out, has one of the lowest testing rates in the world. The shortfall has sparked a race between Indian manufacturers to design a low-cost ventilator, with car companies Maruti Suzuki and Mahindra & Mahindra taking the lead. New Delhi has placed orders for at least 40,000 ventilators from domestic companies Agva Healthcare and Bharat Electronics Limited, along with orders from international companies Hamilton Medical, Mindray and Drager. The ministry of external affairs has also approached China for 10,000 ventilators

Inspiration

India, which only spends about 1 per cent of its gross domestic product on healthcare, has allocated fewer than 20,000 ventilators for the treatment of Covid-19 patients. According to a Johns Hopkins report, the US, which is trying desperately to procure more of the life-saving devices for its significantly smaller population, has about 160,000 ventilators. The chief of one of India’s largest private hospital chains has warned that the country faces a critical shortage of ventilators and intensive care unit staff if coronavirus infections rise rapidly. India is rushing to contain the coronavirus outbreak after confirmed cases leapt by 250 per cent in less than a week to almost 5,000. Experts fear that authorities are underestimating the scale of the crisis and that the actual number of infections is far higher. India, they point out, has one of the lowest testing rates in the world.

Problem Statement.

 CoVID 19 Respiratory failure the main cause : all critically ill patients in hospital will be admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU)  COPD crisis in India due to exposure to smoke from tobacco or coal, wood or cow-dung …the main contribution of traditional stoves burning coal, wood and cow-dung  Nation’s toxic air.

  1. In the first part of this series. COVID 19 Respiratory failure is obviously the main cause, as was also the case in previous viral pandemics, such as the Spanish flu of 1918. Today, however, many patients can be supported by invasive mechanical ventilation until the lungs recover. If the situation deteriorates, use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) systems can control gas exchange for weeks.
  2. not all critically ill patients in hospital will be admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), because the chances of meaningful survival for some will be viewed as too low; for these patients, non-invasive ventilation and perhaps even some vasopressor support could be provided in so-called middle care units,

  3. The second part COPD is responsible for nearly a million deaths every year. COPD crisis--the disease is the second most common cause of death in the country after heart disease. COPD takes years of exposure to smoke from tobacco or coal, wood or cow-dung and other irritants to manifest and its patients are usually above the age of 40. the main contribution of traditional stoves burning coal, wood and cow-dung to COPD in India.

  4. The third part was the story of a nation’s toxic air, a dangerous habit and a man being slowly claimed by a disease killing more Indians than ever before.

Proposed Methodology.

The virus, at its most lethal, attacks the lungs, making ventilators - which pump air into the lungs - critical for hospitals around the world as they are swamped with COVID-19 cases. For patients with the worst effects of the infection, a ventilator offers the best chance of survival. Simply put, a ventilator takes over the body's breathing process when disease has caused the lungs to fail. This gives the patient time to fight off the infection and recover. Ventilators are complex machines that pump air in and out. They can be invasive and non-invasive. The machines everyone is talking about are the invasive ones, which are computerised microprocessor-controlled machines. These are connected not by face masks but through tubing that is inserted into the throat (trachea). These are highly complex machines with a myriad of settings that take care of respiration even in brain-dead patients. They require intricate settings and constant monitoring. The absence of adequate number of ventilators is adding to the woes amid Coronavirus crisis in India. The Centre, as well as state governments, has placed orders for thousands of ventilators to treat patients suffering from Covid-19. But while those ventilators may take time to be delivered, the only solution is to have a device that can save lives. The portable ventilator is an instrument of choice in this situation, which is a low-cost device that can stabilize the patient during a respiratory arrest by mechanically providing intermittent positive pressure ventilation at specific desired ventilator parameters.

Justification and Novelty

University College London engineers have worked with clinicians at UCLH and Mercedes Formula One to build what is known as the Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) device. In these severe cases, the virus causes damage to the lungs. The body's immune system detects this and expands blood vessels so more immune cells enter. But this can cause fluid to enter the lungs, making it harder to breathe, and causing the body's oxygen levels to drop. To alleviate this, a machine ventilator is used to push air, with increased levels of oxygen, into the lungs. The ventilator also has a humidifier, which adds heat and moisture to the medical air so it matches the patient's body temperature. Patients are given medication to relax the respiratory muscles so their breathing can be fully regulated by the machine. People with milder symptoms may be given ventilation using facemasks, nasal masks or mouthpieces which allow pressurized air or mixtures of gases to be pushed into the lungs. Keeping the scenario in mind we have designed the 2D and 3D design for the abovementioned device Solution. And are quite confident that, this novel innovation; is really going to help society in this serious situation. As it simplicity makes its manufacturing at faster rate using locally available components. For Safety aspects like (Oxygen Cylinder Pressure, Pumping pressure) we are using Bull Nose Fitting. The details design is mentioned below. For proper working and Performance of the said Ventilator, we are also attaching the 3D design Model which will beneficial for understanding the concept in easy way.

How we built it

We have already prepared the designed approved by Respected and honorable doctor.

  1. We are using the addition device PULSE OXIMETER for SPO2 (Saturated percentage of Oxygen) and Pulse Rate Measurement.
  2. As we are using the rotating shaft mechanism. Is powered by the Single Phase Motor (0.5 HP) , which leads some Sound . For that we are using the bearing arrangement .Which reduced its upto maximum Extent.
  3. We are using the Speed Regulator for controlling the RPM of motor as per our desires and requirement
  4. We are making the Wooden Block base in order to Reduce the Cost of total Assembly upto maximum level so that this design will helpful to needy one at larger Scale.
  5. We are using the Ambu Bag , which consist of Air-inlet One- way Valve Mechanism , which resist the flow of oxygen in reverse direction
  6. The Flow and Pressure will be easily controlled by the Mediguard Oxygen Flowmeter mentioned in Bull Nose Fitting Assembly.
  7. We are not using any additional ECG Machine for this Set up , as we are targeting majority to the COVID-19 Victims and Mass level .So , in case if require in any Emergency modes , we will use it from external Source.

Challenges we ran into

  1. We are still searching for the platform, where we will able to convert our design idea into Prototype. Hope our wait will be over here.
  2. Medical terminologies related to the breathing assistant were also a biggest Challenge we faced.
  3. Due to Lock down ,it was great challenge for us to go for validation our Design Idea from various Medical and technical experts.

Accomplishments that we're proud of

We are going to make the Breathing Assistant very Economical which is going to help the Society up to maximum level We have team of (four) 04 members , and happy to said that we worked together without meeting and Knowing our (two) 02 members Personaly.

What we learned

We learned a lot about today Situation (Covid-19) and more mentioned below:

  1. Safety of healthcare worker Add ours will stop infection Hood when devise used with a face mask, such devices can possibly increase the spread of infectious disease by aerosolizing the virus, whether used in the hospital or at home. Foot note: Indeed, that very scenario may have contributed to the spread of COVID-19 within a Washington state nursing home that became ground zero in the United States.
  2. Cost and made in india with local components only compare with all ventilator manufacture
  3. Tech specification: crank, energy efficiency, user friendly, remote areas etc.

What's next for SAANS - Your Breathing Assistant

We Prepared our business model, consists of following points : • Current production capacity is 5000 units /month • To meet this demand we need 60 to 80 year • So many new players can penetrate the market • We will be able to produce prototype in next 3 weeks in Icreate /name suggested by Sir • Then incubated in PArul we will validate with drs • Then in next 2moths we will assmle 6 units and will depoy in 3 hospitals for validation and regulatory approvals • Then with our connects with Rajkot manufatues we will start producing 1st batch of 50 to 100 units if successful sale then scale to 200 units/month

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