DNS3.0: Trustless DNS with Ethereum, Local DNS and Radical Markets

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This DNS3.0 "hackathon" project develops a piece of a DNS 3.0 stack, aiming for trustless decentralized DNS systems integrating with Handshake's decentralized TLD.

DNS is managed with Zone files like this one, typically by a web master updating DNS records in a website UI in Godaddy / Cloudflare / Google / ... DNS Manager, so that when users visit a name-friendly url like "http://www.eth.hacker" their browser will map them to an IP 104.154.155.233:

;; eth.hacker zone entries
;; A Records
www.eth.hacker.     3600   IN  A   104.154.155.233
ganache.eth.hacker. 1      IN  A   35.224.4.165
remix.eth.hacker.   1      IN  A   52.4.38.70

Behind the scenes, when users browsers ask for www.eth.hacker there is:

  1. a user's trusted DNS provider (e.g. 8.8.8.8 run by Google, or your local monopolist ISP) that figures out the name server for eth.hacker and asks that name server to look up the value for www
  2. a name server for eth.hacker hosted by a trusted Zone file database editor like Godaddy or Google DNS
  3. a root "Top level domain" (or "TLD") server (e.g. ".com, .edu, .org"), which have historically been managed with a dozen or so organizations (see http://www.root-servers.org/) People learn about (1) when setting up their new Internet connection, learn about (2) when setting up a new web site, but almost no one is aware of (3). However, all of this comes together in a few hundred milliseconds.

Can the trusted systems that manage (1) DNS lookup (2) database zone records (3) TLD root servers be replaced with completely trustless DNS protocols? We believe the answer is YES.

Recently, the lowest level (3) has been developed into a new blockchain protocol by handshake.org, where new TLDs (e.g. .hacker) can be bought and queries resolved in a trustless way, replacing 12-13 truste parties. Before the rise of Ethereum, a special purpose blockchain named Namecoin built a special purpose blockchain to handle (1) + (2), but it never really took off. This DNS3 project is a prototype that aims to show how (1) name look up + (2) zone files of domains can managed in a trustless way with a local DNS server that connects to a DNS3.sol Smart contract that keeps the Zone file hashes in a decentralized storage backend (IPFS).

Demonstration of DNS3

Part 1: DNS3.sol Ethereum Smart Contract

The main idea is that core DNS zone data are kept in an Ethereum Smart Contract like DNS3.sol (View on Rinkeby)

Domain owners for new TLDs like .hacker will manage their DNS entries by:

  • [txn #1] registering their domain with registerDomain(string _domain), where a domain eth.hacker is represented on Ethereum with a domainHash like: 0xb63f160a960a1663c5cec1d7d02e67a44d368affd1d42be3b3554c34fd2dea4b

  • [txn #2] updating the zone record for the domainHash with submitZone(bytes ipfsHashByte, bytes32 domainHash)

where the zone file hash QmXThgG1gUnfywM4e9QpEYDkBZNJwSbpPogJjXtewVgYmi is represented in a 34-byte ipfsHashByte: 0x122087879aa6968d1f21be72500bbeea130b1003efca205101364a77086b6abbb7d5

In this model, zone files are held in decentralized storage (IPFS), where a zone file is uniquely retrievable and verifiable by their zone file hash such as this one:

https://cloudflare-ipfs.com/ipfs/QmXkTBPtuJ1pTYRQ1U4AsSgAy1vE7r1EaMSAJ4pKMkZj89

When someone adds a new record like:

dev.eth.hacker.   3600    IN  A   35.77.66.55

the owner of eth.hacker updates the zone hash entry in this contract.

Part 2: Local DNS resolution

In DNS3.0, when devices resolve DNS entries like www.eth.hacker or dev.eth.hacker, instead of resolving to 8.8.8.8 Trusted server, their local resolver will:

  1. read the latest zone file 32-byte hash with getZone(bytes32 domainHash) by hashing eth.hacker into the domainHash and retrieving QmXThgG1gUnfywM4e9QpEYDkBZNJwSbpPogJjXtewVgYmi from IPFS
  2. do a HTTP GET fetch to get the ZONE file from decentralized storage: https://cloudflare-ipfs.com/ipfs/QmXThgG1gUnfywM4e9QpEYDkBZNJwSbpPogJjXtewVgYmi
  3. from the zone in the HTTP Response, get the We demonstrate a proof-of-concept showing that a local DNS server (github.com/miekg/dns) can do local domain resolution:
$ go test -run DNSRequest
DNS3 Request:   dev.eth.hacker
  tld:  hacker
  domain:   eth.hacker
  domainHash:   0xb63f160a960a1663c5cec1d7d02e67a44d368affd1d42be3b3554c34fd2dea4b
DNS3.sol Call:  getZone(0xb63f160a960a1663c5cec1d7d02e67a44d368affd1d42be3b3554c34fd2dea4b)
  ipfsHash: 87879aa6968d1f21be72500bbeea130b1003efca205101364a77086b6abbb7d5 => QmXThgG1gUnfywM4e9QpEYDkBZNJwSbpPogJjXtewVgYmi  IPFS Lookup:    https://cloudflare-ipfs.com/ipfs/QmXThgG1gUnfywM4e9QpEYDkBZNJwSbpPogJjXtewVgYmi... FOUND
  DNS3 Result:  35.77.66.55
PASS
ok      github.com/wolkdb/dns3/dns3 1.013s

Given a DNS3 Request of dev.eth.hacker, the above test computes the domain eth.hacker, calls getZone(bytes32 domainHash) with the Keccak hash of eth.hacker and gets back the latest zone file hash QmXThgG1gUnfywM4e9QpEYDkBZNJwSbpPogJjXtewVgYmi.

Then it does a HTTP GET to IPFS to get the latest Zone file, and then retrieves the latest value 35.77.66.55!

When everyone runs local DNS Servers, we get totally trustless DNS!

... One more thing: Radical Markets

We believe this trustless DNS3.0 approach can be adapted for new TLDs managed entirely with Handshake. To reduce domain squatting (common to NameCoin, ENS, and the current Domain Name Registration system), we propose to adapt a "Radical Markets" technique proposed by Weyl and Posner to our DNS3.sol smart contract:

  • domain name registrants specify a sale price when they register. When they do so, they commit to paying a fixed percentage of that sale price every 1MM blocks. Otherwise, anyone can pay that sale price and secure the rights to the domain. A grace period of 7 days is offered to ensure that a transition can be smooth, or for the current owner to increase his sale price to override the transfer, but the override cost must be at least 10x higher.
  • Example: Alice purchases a new domain dns3.hacker for a price of .1 ETH but sets her sale price to 10ETH. Bob sees dns3.hacker and submits a acquireDomain(bytes32 domainHash) payable transaction for 10ETH to get it. If Alice does nothing, after 7 days, Bob (or anyone) can finalize the purchase by calling finalizeDomain(bytes32 domainHash), which transfers the funds to Alice. If Alice pays 100ETH to keep the dns3.hacker domain, she (and only she) can call challengePurchase(bytes32 domainHash) This technique incentivizes domain owners to set their sale price to be within an order of magnitude of what they value it at. If Alice rushes to buy 80,000 English word domains for .01 ETH each and sets a sale price of 10 ETH thinking she'll make killing, she must pay "taxes" based on the 1 ETH. On the other hand, if some old company comes by and wishes to pay 10 ETH for it, they may do so, but Alice does not benefit massively for having sat on it.

Welcome to Trustless DNS3.0 with Ethereum!!!

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