This is a draft.

Backstory (via. Medium): https://medium.com/@elleryblog/what-will-our-cognitive-existence-be-like-in-20-50-100-years-b7bc45b96b6b

Reid Hoffman says, "If you are not embarrassed by the first version of your product, you've launched too late."

Note: The image is..click the link first so he gets credit: Also like the nonprofit:https://m.facebook.com/groups/carboncopies/, join their Facebook group: https://m.facebook.com/groups/137597286269298?ref=share and potentially donate www.carboncopies.org.

“The reason that our time and place is so unique in the arch of humanity is we now have the tools to build the kind of world we can dream of. If you take computer software, and biology, genomics, ai, virtual reality, and 3d printing we can literally program our existence.“ - Bryan Johnson (Founder of Kernel Co, Braintree, and OS Fund)

“If everyone thinks the future is great and hence no one does anything, the future won’t be any different than today!”

The project below requires financial support from Pentagon, China, EU, Wall Street, angel networks, family based investment funds that have professional management, scientifically trained billionaires, world-class athletes, best selling authors, supercelebrities, industry icons, scientists, attorneys, university faculty/students, leaders of countries, and the public to help turn my dreams into reality.

DISCLAIMER: The following are quotes from email correspondence with individuals or Facebooks. The quotes and images are anonymous with credit upon request. Or if there is information you don't want, I can take it down.

Inspiration

Currently, there are several companies brain-machine interfacing and researching now including Kernel LLC, Neuralink, Neuropace, The Human Brain Project, Dmitry Itskov for GF2045 Foundation, Eyewear, support by for-profit company Halcyon Molecular, and Ted Berger funded by DARPA.

Further, “There is a big difference between machine interfacing and whole brain emulation (which leads to mind uploading and substrate independence).” .. “An interface is just a communication channel. It is not a replacement of a piece of the brain.“

However, no one is a for-profit continuing to scale up and refine the "tools to record data from the brain at the resolution and scale that would give insights" to hope to achieve Whole Brain Emulation.

My motivation:

  1. There are dozens of incurable diseases, cancers with a high mortality rate (100's of cancer total), and we all biologically age without a treatment. "Today, the U.S spends 50 times more on treatments than on prevention and research."

  2. Physics says that, "in death, the collection of atoms of which you are composed (a universe within the universe) are repurposed. Those atoms and that energy, which originated during the Big Bang, will always be around."

  3. Ray Kurzweil says, "People say at 30, oh I only want to live to 90 but when they're 90 they actually realize they maybe want to live to 91."

  4. Peter Thiel says, “I’ve always had this really strong sense that death was a terrible, terrible thing. I think that’s somewhat unusual. Most people end up compartmentalizing, and they are in some weird mode of denial and acceptance about death. I prefer to fight it.” 

  5. "For the first time, we have found a connection between the brainstem region involved in arousal and regions involved in awareness, two prerequisites for consciousness,” said lead researcher Michael Fox from the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Centre at Harvard Medical School

  6. Theoretical physicists “have discovered that it's impossible to model the physics of our universe on even the biggest computer.”

  7. “We can take it as axiomatic that life is good and death is bad.”

  8. “The Human brain has 100 billion neurons and 100 trillion synapses, so it is not infinitely complex.”

  9. The brain is hardware, the mind is software.

This past year I attended the Yale Hackathon and Yale Healthcare Hackathon. Additionally, I received a reply from Ray Kurzweil of the Singularity book, a retweet from the founder of Kernel Co, and shared thoughts with members of Carboncopies Foundation.

DISCLAIMER: The following are quotes from email correspondence with individuals. The quotes are anonymous with credit upon request. Or if there is information you don't want, I can take it down.

What it does:

The overarching goal is "equipping a mind upload with a prosthetic brain in a robot body to a fully embodied and physical robotic scenario." The ideal customer is a "physicalist, functionalist, and patternist."

Currently this is a “problem of technology development, more than it is a problem of scientific understanding.”

“The largest hurdle is still the matter of extracting detailed information from the brain: structure of the connectome + parameters that can be used to reconstruct physiologically functional components in that connectome, such that the resulting activity is a close emulation of the original activity.”

“The problem of a complete brain mapping (which one would presume is needed for complete download) is that each of the 100 billion neurons in the brain have some 10,000 synaptic connections of varying strengths. There is currently no technology available that could trace each of those 10K connections and measure their strengths. Let alone, for every neuron there are another 85 billion glial cells that have influences on synaptic strengths and play roles in neurohormone levels.”

“It might be thought that we would just be data in this technology. Whole brain emulation is not just information. It's not the story in a book. It's an artificial brain with an artificial (or new or virtual reality) body. To interact and exist in the universe, we need to be able to do so. Information alone can't do that.”

How it works:

“find out how to decode and simulate brain processes on computers and, if and how could we possibly transfer mind to a non-biological substrate that is needed in patient-specific neuroprostheses.”

“The progress would be “first types of upload with small animal brains, then at some point human volunteers in a controlled research trial, and ultimately a mature process of mind uploading.”

Carboncopies Episode 1 (transcribed): https://carboncopies.org/episode-1-transcript/ Carboncopies Episode 2 (transcribed): https://carboncopies.org/episode-2-transcript/

DISCLAIMER: The following are quotes from email correspondence with individuals. The quotes are anonymous with credit upon request. Or if there is information you don't want, I can take it down.

What I learned:

“Who says it has to be a robot body? Like, instead of living in a cloud server and going where you please, you want to lock yourself back up in a physical body?”

“Sometimes it's still nice to go outside.”

“Transport digital brain into robotic body where it can move around as it please, and still be able to get back to its original cloud server by having the robot dock somewhere.”

“James Vaughn the origin of something doesn't need to matter for judgements such as, "we consider this important". Where it does matter is in terms of assumptions made in areas where intuitive common sense breaks down, assumptions such as about having to preserve a stream of consciousness during mind uploading, or that consciousness would prevent a valid mind upload by some method due to the fear that it wouldn't 'be you', and many others.”

“I'd think that if it became popular it would be VR worlds by default with an option for telepresence to keep in touch with corporal humans.”

“It's my impression that you are trying to say that a for-profit approach may be better than a non-profit organization to drive R&D towards whole brain emulation forwards. (Note: work in university labs is also on the non-profit side of that equation.) If so, you do clearly have a point. Whenever a new technology gets to a stage where near term valuable products become clear their further development does tend to happen much faster in a for-profit environment. (Look at machine learning now, for example.) This is of course the hope behind companies such as Kernel and Neurlink as well.

If you have ideas for viable products that a company can be built around which simultaneously advance whole brain emulation R&D, then that is a conversation (in private or public) that I think is very useful and valuable. Having gone down that road before, one good think I could do to help you is to critically evaluate the idea (much as an experienced VC in the domain ought to) and to give constructive review and feedback.“

“Giving this a go, here's an insight that might help direct or guide creative thinking. If we're thinking about products that have the following characteristics: a) the product technology is ready for commercialization (there are no scientific hurdles with unknown timelines, markets are identifiable with specificity), b) developments of the proposed product technology have a clear beneficial impact on advancing to whole brain emulation... Then, based on personal experience, you're most likely to find a serendipitous match in areas of tool development than by aiming directly at milestones of WBE R&D or applications of neuroscience results to medical technology. Let's say, for example, that we really need a way to automatically identify neuronal cell structures in stacks of electron microscope images. A product that can be trained by human experts and continue to improve its own ability to identify, classify and map impurities or materials in acoustic 3D probes of underground volumes might be commercially viable, and might ultimately be good enough and be translatable to EM stacks of neuronal tissue. That's just a made-up example, so don't think too hard about it. :-) What I mean is that I think it may be necessary to have a good insight into the actual technical hurdles to WBE and to also associate creatively with opportunties far outside of neuroscience. The reasons for this are many. Sometimes what would be immensely valuable in neuroscience / neurotech is simply far from product ready. And sometimes what looks like an awesome output of a neurotech lab has no viable market size, even if it were taken all the way to product readiness. But no worries, that's where critical review helps.”

BCI is not an option "because it doesn't copy the brain. It's like hacking into Microsoft Word and hooking in a few extra functions - that's great, but it doesn't make a backup copy of Microsoft Word. Whole brain emulation is just a more academic term for mind uploading. It is the only plausible route to immortality."

"Nanotech can (according to some) do whatever you want it to do. Cures for aging and disease are certainly more plausible than the above mind uploading procedures."

"canning head that branches into two heads, each of which then branches (so now there are 4), and so on into a forest of billions of microscopic tools. You place this on top of the subject's head, and it slowly disassembles the head, while (somehow) keeping all the blood and cerebrospinal fluid and cell contents from spilling out, recording and replacing brain function gradually as it goes. I am not making this up (it comes from the book "Mind Children" by Hans Moravec)."

"The "quantum teleportation" you see in the news sometimes isn't teleportation at all; it's just transferring quantum states from one particle to another. It's no more teleportation than this email is "teleporting" something from my computer to yours. And it has no relevance at all on the macro scale."

"we can take it as axiomatic that death is bad and life is good."

Challenges (philosophical, legal, technological, economical, financial):

Philosophical---

“Your motivation looks sublime but the thing is that biological body is weak and vulnerable, it suffers and does experience pain. I mentioned Altered Carbon just because the very existence of bodies provides the possibility of enslavement and oppression.”

Legal---

“To my way of thinking, the most pressing issue in transitioning to the cloud is security. Specifically, once your mind is a file, what keeps bad actors from gaining access to that file, perhaps to discover passwords, perhaps worse? Tom Scott just made a terrifying video about this, so terrifying that I am going to warn you not to watch it: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3L1QIJ9PQ2M And to my thinking, the answer is basically verifiable computing, and specifically zero-knowledge verifiable computing, combined with a sort of smart contract that rewards cloud servers just if they have correctly run your mind. Then you'd replace passwords etc with a security mechanism directly based on verifiable computing - subjectively, it would be like thinking "Yes, I do commit to making this purchase" and not like entering your credit card number somewhere". So it would be beyond the realm of ordinary theft.”

Scientific/Technical-----

"The technology needed to exist is "technology needs to exist? better automated microtoming, automated tracing of the neuropil (which is a type of image recognition problem), better neural modeling. And then there's the sheer computing power needed to run such a simulation in real-time. We need to further develop serial microtoming, develop automated tracing (to do what EyeWire.org does through crowdsourcing), develop and validate better low-level models of neural function and work out how we can approximate those in more efficient high-level models without changing functionality, and much more."

"microscopic robots with the computing power of supercomputers, that can somehow detect where they are in the brain and what's connected to what in great detail, and then somehow get that terabyte of data out to a real computer."

“we don't have the technology to do this yet. We are still many orders of magnitude away from uploading even a small invertebrate.. ..When you understand it, I think you'll see that uploading the brain through serial sectioning is the only realistic route to immortality (and cryonics is a good stop-gap measure until that technology arrives)."

“You would need tools that could alter the laws of physics. It is not possible to create a functioning simulation of the brain.”

Economical---

Financial----

What's next:

Pitch to investors the granular deck, cash flow with projections/assumptions, business model canvas (attached), and prepare for an in-person pitch deck -https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/1_bnOl2XOz6QpK6a7l34d6NXs4yP2b0y4qV32-rrQFKQ

Med or grads work on this Pharmaceuticals Insurance and people paying do it Rich people Economies of scale

Credit (APA?) -

http://t.co/XOcnjG7Fpr

There Is No Such Thing as Conscious Thought: https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/there-is-no-such-thing-as-conscious-thought/

The Fallacy of Favoring Gradual Replacement Mind Uploading Over Scan-and-Copy: https://arxiv.org/abs/1504.06320

Artificial Intelligence and Experience Series (AIEX): Engineering the Mind: https://m.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=1&v=ABSzHJco-nk

3D nanofabrication by volumetric deposition and controlled shrinkage of patterned scaffolds: http://science.sciencemag.org/content/362/6420/1281?fbclid=IwAR1t56I5AmhhgvlVGxZXUHA8QoJgrEASLv_8G_Do1xqMojJGrV_KOCVyhsc

The Hippies Were Right: It's All about Vibrations, Man!: https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/observations/the-hippies-were-right-its-all-about-vibrations-man/

A Cell Atlas for the Mouse Brain: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fninf.2018.00084/full?utm_source=AD&utm_medium=FB&utm_campaign=ECO_FNINF_20181205

A Complete Electron Microscopy Volume of the Brain of Adult Drosophila melanogaster: https://secure.jbs.elsevierhealth.com/action/consumeSsoCookie?redirectUri=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.cell.com%2Faction%2FconsumeSharedSessionAction%3FJSESSIONID%3DaaaghWrtjQK156T7PhdGw%26MAID%3DdWe%252BlAopD4rdLfbqV4jmDQ%253D%253D%26SERVER%3DWZ6myaEXBLHNN%252BUWpfIEYQ%253D%253D%26ORIGIN%3D196448844%26RD%3DRD&code=null&ctmms=1546276731377&acw=&utt=

Machines in minds to reverse engineer the machine that is mind: Randal A. Koene at TEDxTallinn: https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=IM_k_c6Uj0A

“What tools do we need for the whole brain emulation to exist?” https://www.quora.com/What-tools-do-we-need-for-the-whole-brain-emulation-to-exist?ch=10&share=fa6f082e&srid=uhbXr

“What percent chance is there that whole brain emulation or mind uploading to a neural prosthetic will be feasible by 2048?” https://www.quora.com/What-percent-chance-is-there-that-whole-brain-emulation-or-mind-uploading-to-a-neural-prosthetic-will-be-feasible-by-2048?ch=10&share=485e5498&srid=uhbXr

Are There Optical Communication Channels in Our Brains?https://www.technologyreview.com/s/608797/are-there-optical-communication-channels-in-our-brains/?fbclid=IwAR1NChSdruyzHy3eVSG4qsutUjN7lAcbMH2cND2KCQ8xaLFRYdsbphXCAAk

Credit: https://m.facebook.com/Carboncopies/

https://m.facebook.com/groups/carboncopies/

There's “3 possible routes: Gradual replacement of the brain by brain implant/tissue replacement, non-destructive emulation, and destructive emulation.”

To preserve the human races existence, ..we’ll extract “detailed information from the brain: structure of the connectome + parameters that can be used to reconstruct physiologically functional components in that connectome, such that the resulting activity is a close emulation of the original activity.” We’d do this by developing “technology available that could trace each of..the.. 10K..brain..connections and measure their strengths, every neuron, and another 85 billion glial cells that have influences on synaptic strengths and play roles in neurohormone levels.”

The first types of upload ..will be with “small animal brains, then at some point human volunteers in a controlled research trial, and ultimately a mature process of mind uploading.”

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