This is a draft.

Backstory (via. Medium):

To preface, here are some other problems in the world to work on a, b, c.

However, according to a Futurist, the upcoming disruptive industries are driverless cars, trillion sensor movements, internet of things, 3d printing, contour crafting, virtual reality, flying drones, artificial intelligence.

Thus, below is a potential big overarching plan for 3d printing.

Here’s why:

Centimillionaire (Bryan Johnson) founded a company which later acquired Venmo and ultimately sold to PayPal for 800 million. He has since opened a VC which now includes in its portfolio 4 deep tech startups that grew to unicorn status. While simultaneously running that, his new company is building an MBMI and involves a team of 31 PhDs with alma maters from schools like Harvard and MIT.

Bryan Johnson says,

”I studied during that time a lot about science and technology. The realization that I came to is, the reason that our time and place is so unique in arch of humanity is we literally now have the tools to build the kind of world we can dream of so. If you take computer software, and biology, genomics, ai, virtual reality, and 3d printing we can literally program our existence. So I think of the time of Da Vinci where had his great sketchbooks, where he designed a flying machine and these really amazing ideas but he couldn’t build it, he didn’t have the tools. We can literally build anything today and so as I realized that, I thought - this is like one of the biggest moments in the history of mankind or humankind how do we, the biggest question for me was: what kind of world are we going to build?” — credit: Bryan Johnson from a podcast interview with Tim Ferris

Billionaire Facebook angel investor, philosopher/lawyer Peter Thiel says, “I’ve always had this really strong sense that death was a terrible, terrible thing. I think that’s somewhat unusual. Most people end up compartmentalizing, and they are in some weird mode of denial and acceptance about death, but they both have the result of making you very passive.. I believe that evolution is a true account of nature, but I think we should try to escape it or transcend it in our society. What’s true of evolution, I would argue, is true of all of nature. Even basic dental hygiene. If it’s natural for your teeth to start falling out, then you shouldn’t get cavities replaced? In the 19th century, people made the argument that it was natural for childbirth to be painful for women and therefore you shouldn’t have pain medication. I think the nature argument tends to go very wrong. . . . I think it is against human nature not to fight death.”

Billionaire Larry Ellison says, “Death has never made any sense to me,” he told his biographer, Mike Wilson. “How can a person be there and then just vanish, just not be there?”

Please note: most of the research for who in the world is working on each bio printed part was from an article. I took it directly from there. Please first click the article so Futurist Thomas Frey gets credit: and for the pricing there were two articles: (by Kristin Houser) and (by Casey Chan). There’s an additional resource that I haven’t used, but it is on this topic: The mind transfer knowledge is from and its members.

The rest of the content is from conversations I had with biomedical professors and researchers in the field as well as my personal research to add on to Futurist Frey’s initial idea (who I have talked to, FYI). My timeline is 1-2 years. Please comment, like, follow, and share! Thank you.

DISCLAIMER: The following are quotes from email correspondence with individuals. The quotes are anonymous with credit upon request. Or if there is information you don't want, I can take it down.

The project below requires financial support/sources of funding from community foundations, governmental organizations, public charities, corporate funders, independent foundations, pension funds, foundations, endowments, family offices, hedge funds, private equity funds, real estate funds, real asset funds, friends and family, personal funds, business partners, shareholders, crowdfunding, venture capital, bank loan, public capital markets, angels, state/federal/private funds, corporate giving programs, government agencies, and non government agencies...the Pentagon, China, EU, Wall Street, angel networks, family based investment funds that have professional management, scientifically trained billionaires, superstars, scientists, attorneys, university faculty/students, leaders of countries, and the public..


There are several machinery and material companies bioprinting now including Allevi, Cyfuse Biomedical, 3D Bioprinting Solutions, Aspect Biosystems, Materialise NV, Rokit, Stratasys, Medprins, and Formlabs. Further, there are several companies brain computer interfacing and brain preserving including DARPA Brain SyNAPSE program,, Carboncopies Foundation, Openwater project, Kernel Co, 2045 Initiative, Neurosteer, Blue Brain Project, Alcor Cryonics, Brain Preservation Foundation, and Neuralink.

However, no one has put the pieces together to hope to transfer and save people’s consciousness who are suffering as well as our risk of mortality into new biological bodies and brains.

This past year I attended the Yale Hackathon and Yale Healthcare Hackathon. Additionally, I exchanged emails with professors at Yale, UConn, MIT, Harvard, Carnegie Mellon, Texas A & M as well as presidents of universities, dozens upon dozens of researchers, and partners at billionaire family offices.

I asked if they would share this with their students. In exchange, I collected all of what they said and articles online to come up with a concept business plan on how we can hope to achieve this.

(If you get bored/confused or feel I included too much, just keep scrolling down further to paragraphs that are of interest to you)

My motivation:

  1. According to a Quora post, The 10 points of life are: hedonistic, singularitan, vainglorious, purely capitalistic, selfless, nationalistic, religious, absurdism, evolutionary, and viking. [Singularitan is where this comes into play]

  2. The species is 6 million years old. There are dozens of incurable diseases, cancer with a high mortality (100’s of cancer total, and we’re biologically aging without a treatment.

  3. Physics says that, “in death, the collection of atoms of which you are composed (a universe within the universe) are repurposed. Those atoms and that energy, which originated during the Big Bang, will always be around.”

  4. The average lifespan a few hundred years ago was 35, now it’s 85. Ray Kurzweil says, “People say at 30, oh I only want to live to 90 but when they’re 90 they actually realize they maybe want to live to 91.”

  5. "For the first time, we have found a connection between the brainstem region involved in arousal and regions involved in awareness, two prerequisites for consciousness,” said lead researcher Michael Fox from the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Centre at Harvard Medical School

  6. The Universe is 13.8 billion years old and Earth is 4.5 billion years old. Theoretical physicists “have discovered that it's impossible to model the physics of our universe on even the biggest computer.”

  7. “We can take it as axiomatic that life is good and death is bad.” It’s estimated that 107 billion people have deceased before us (Population Reference Bureau).

  8. “The Human brain has 100 billion neurons and 100 trillion synapses, so it is not infinitely complex.”

  9. An analogy to computers - “The brain is hardware, the mind is software.” Once the brain brain stops working, so too does the mind. “Consciousness has to become accepted as a genuine biological phenomenon, as much subject to scientific analysis as any other phenomenon in biology, or for that matter, the rest of science.”

  10. “Researchers have found that the more beautiful we are, the more we get paid, and the more we are perceived as honest and intelligent.” Thus, maybe the hope is to transfer our consciousness into new bodies.

Some will say, if we extended life then there’d be a lack of resources and an overpopulation, however:

• We could add real estate in the ocean, the sky, and other parts of the universe.

“Data from the Kepler Space Observatory have been used to suggest that there may be more than two billion planets in our galaxy capable of supporting life.

The number comes from extrapolating from selection of Sun-like stars studied by the telescope, which found that 22% of them have planets that are potentially Earth-like.” and

“In terms of the number of solar systems present in the universe, there are something like 300 billion stars in the Milky Way, so if 10 per cent of them have planets there are around 30 billion planets in our galaxy alone, and there are over 100 billion galaxies in the observable Universe.”

“Scarcity is one of the fundamental issues in economics. The issue of scarcity means we have to decide how and what to produce from limited resources. ... Economics solves the problem of scarcity by placing a higher price on scarce goods. The high price discourages demand and encourages firms to develop alternatives.“

What it does:

For the mind, the hope is to transfer consciousness into new printed biological bodies with brains.

There's “3 possible routes: Gradual replacement of the brain by brain implant/tissue replacement, non-destructive emulation, and destructive emulation.”

To transfer, ..we’ll extract “detailed information from the brain: structure of the connectome + parameters that can be used to reconstruct physiologically functional components in that connectome, such that the resulting activity is a close emulation of the original activity.” We’d do this by developing “technology available that could trace each of..the.. 10K..brain..connections and measure their strengths, every neuron, and another 85 billion glial cells that have influences on synaptic strengths and play roles in neurohormone levels.” The first types of upload ..will be with “small animal brains, then at some point human volunteers in a controlled research trial, and ultimately a mature process of mind uploading.”

For the body, I understand bioprinting human organs is very complex. There is a company, Allevi, in 154 labs worldwide resulting in 24 publications. They are “building software, hardware, and wetware to design and engineer living things.. Our first products are 3D printers that make living tissues out of cells.” The director of sales name is Gardner.

Below, Futurist Frey’s work (some new places I added but overwhelmingly his research) -

Immune System: TBD

"Brain – Scientists in Australia at the University of Wollongong and ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science have created brain-like tissue in the lab using a 3D printer and special bio-ink made from stem cells.

Using 3D bioprinting to produce mini-brain:

Skulls "$1,200 and Scalp: $607" – Doctors at University Medical Center Utrecht, in Holland, have successfully performed the first surgery to completely replace a patient’s skull with a tailor-made plastic version that was 3-D printed.

Eyes "$1,525" – England’s Fripp Design printed 150 prosthetic eyes in an hour as a solution for the developing world. Printing each eye with a slight color variation produces better aesthetic results.

Noses and Ears – A team at Cornell University is printing 3-D molds of a patient’s ear using ink gels containing living cells. The printed products are injected with bovine cartilage cells and rat collagen and incubated until they are ready three months later.

Synthetic Skin – James Yoo and his team at the Wake Forest School of Medicine have developed a printer that will print skin directly onto the wounds of burn victims. The “ink” used consists of enzymes and collagen which once printed are layered with tissue cells and skin cells which combine to form the skin graft.

Vaginas – Wake Forest has also conducted breakthrough research on tissue-engineered vaginas implanted in four women, aged 13 to 18 years, with a condition known as Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome that causes the vagina to be underdeveloped or absent. No, this is not a 3D printing process yet, but eight years after transplantation, the organs continue to function as if they were natural tissue and all recipients are sexually active, report no pain, and are satisfied with their arousal, lubrication, and orgasm.

Male reproductive system-

Breasts – Women with mastectomies are lining up for the first clinical trials at the Queensland University of Technology in Brisbane, Australia that will use 3D-printed “scaffolds’’ to regenerate their breasts using fat cells. Liposuction will be used to remove the fat cells from the stomach area, which will be injected into a scaffold designed to dissolve over two or three years as the fatty breast tissue regenerates.

Kidneys "$262,000" – In August last year the Hangzhou Dianzi University in China announced it had created biomaterial that was 3D printed into a small working kidney that lasted four months.

Livers "$157,000" – On average, there are 16,000 people on the waiting list for every liver transplant. Dr. Nizar Zein, Medical Director of Liver Transplantation in Cleveland has spearheaded an effort to develop 3D printed livers. So far, Cleveland surgeons have used the 3D livers in about 25 surgeries.

Bones & Limbs Shoulder: "$500 and Hand and Forearm: $385" – One of the more established fields of 3-D printing is the bioprinting of human bone implants, and now replacement bones. We’ve also gotten very good at 3D printing prosthetic arms and legs, but so far no one has managed to bioprint a replacement finger or arm and reattach it with fully-reconnected nerve endings.

Tissues - A “team of University of Utah biomedical engineers have developed a method to 3D-print cells to produce human tissue such as ligaments and tendons”.

Skin "$10 per square inch" - “Producing small amounts of artificial skin to graft onto patients and use for toxicity testing has been possible for years. Human skin cells are cultivated in the lab and then embedded in a collagen scaffold. In 2011, the Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology introduced a system that can rapidly manufacture two-layer artificial skin models. Their Tissue Factory has the capacity to make 5,000 skin sheets in a month.”

Ear "Gallbladder: $1,219" - “Reproducing 3D biological structures, particularly the complex human ear, presents significant challenges for bioengineers. A team at Princeton University, led by Associate Professor of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Michael McAlpine, used 3D printing technology to make a functional ear from calf cells and electronic materials. The ear that debuted in May 2013 is not a simple replacement — it can pick up radio frequencies well beyond the range that human ears normally detect.”

Bladder - “Surgeon Anthony Atala directs the Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine and is known for growing new human cells, tissues and organs — particularly ones that advance urology. Atala and his team’s bioengineered bladders succeeded in clinical trials. The bladders were constructed from patients’ cells that were grown over two months on a biodegradable scaffold and then implanted. Patients included children with spina bifida who risked kidney failure. It’s been several years since then and the results are positive. “These constructs appear to be doing well as patients get older and grow,” Atala told The NIH Record.”

Blood Vessels "Pint of Blood: $337" - “Being able to make blood vessels in the lab from a patient’s own cells could mean better treatments for cardiovascular disease, kidney disease and diabetes. In 2011, the head of California-based Cytograft Tissue Engineering reported progress in a study where three end-stage kidney disease patients were implanted with blood vessels bioengineered in the lab. After eight months the grafts continued to work well, easing access to dialysis. Then, this month, a team at Massachusetts General Hospital found a way to bring mature vascular cells back to an early, stem-like state. They generated long-lasting blood vessels in living mice.”

Heart "$119,000 and Coronary Artery: $1,525" - “Artificial heart devices have been surgically implanted since the 1980s, but no device has been able to replace the human heart as effectively as a healthy biological one. After all, a human heart pumps 35 million times in a single year. Recently scientists have made advances in adding more biological material to artificial heart devices. In May the French company Carmat prepared to test an artificial device containing cow heart tissue. At Massachusetts General Hospital, surgeon Harald C. Ott and his team are working on a bioartificial heart scaffold while MIT researchers recently printed functional heart tissue from rodent cells.”

Heart p2: A startup called BioLife4D is working on a way to print functioning hearts using patients' own cells.

Liver - “Bioengineers are working on it, but the liver is one of the largest, most challenging organs to recreate. In 2010 bioengineers at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center grew miniature livers in the lab using decellularized animal livers for the structure and human cells. This month, a team from the Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine published results of a study where they reprogrammed human adult skin cells, added other cell types, and got them to grow into early-stage liver “buds.” Currently the scientists can produce about 100 of them, but the study’s lead author Takanori Takebe told The Wall Street Journal that even a partial liver would require tens of thousands.”

Trachea - “In April, after an international team of surgeons spent nine hours operating on her at Children's Hospital of Illinois in Peoria, 32-month old Hannah Warren became the youngest patient to ever receive a bioengineered organ. Scientists had made a windpipe for her using her own bone marrow cells. Born without a trachea, she needed help breathing, eating, drinking and talking. Harvard Bioscience created the custom scaffold and bioreactor for the experimental procedure. Sadly Hannah died on July 7 due to complications from a more recent surgery on her esophagus. Despite the high risks, bioengineers say they will continue to move ahead.“

Back Discs - “When a ruptured or degenerating disc causes chronic back pain, treatment is limited. At worst, patients undergo surgery to fuse vertebrae together and then have limited flexibility. Over the past several years artificial discs have emerged as an alternative, but they can wear out as they work. In 2011, a research team from Cornell University bioengineered implants using gel and collagen seeded with rat cells that were then successfully placed into rat spines. This summer Duke bioengineers took things further, coming up with a gel mixture they think can help regenerate tissue when injected into the space between discs.“

Intestines Spleen: "$508, Stomach: $508, Small Intestine: $2,519" - “Little by little, bioengineered intestines are being grown in the lab to diagnose digestive disorders and to help patients born without a piece of intestine. In 2011, Cornell biological and environmental engineering assistant professor John March began collaborating with Pittsburgh-based pediatric surgeon David Hackam on a small artificial intestine using collagen and stem cells. Then last year in Switzerland, EPFL professor Martin Gijs led a project in the Laboratory of Microsystems to create a miniature intestinal wall from cultured epithelial cells and electronics called NutriChip to identify foods that cause inflammation. Scientists at Harvard’s Wyss Institute also made a “gut-on-a chip” to mimic the real thing using intestinal cells in a tiny silicon polymer device.“

Kidney - “One in 10 American adults will have some level of chronic kidney disease, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Currently around 600,000 patients in the U.S. have chronic kidney failure. Most rely on dialysis while a fraction of them actually get transplants. Scientists from the University of California, San Francisco are on a mission to create a sophisticated artificial kidney device made with human kidney cells, silicon nanofilters and powered by blood pressure. The project, led by UCSF nephrologist William Fissell and bioengineering professor Shuvo Roy, aims to begin testing the kidney device in 2017.”

DISCLAIMER: The following are quotes from email correspondence with individuals. The quotes are anonymous with credit upon request. Or if there is information you don't want, I can take it down.

How it works:

Make “a blueprint detailing all the steps that are needed to 3D-print a functional human body and describe how your project will help achieving all those steps.”

The plan is to bring all the pieces together from companies in manufacturing and tissue around the world to begin saving people who otherwise will die.

DISCLAIMER: The following are quotes from email correspondence with individuals. The quotes are anonymous with credit upon request. Or if there is information you don't want, I can take it down.

What I learned:

“Find a professor, generate student interest, make a student association, get university sponsorship, and get them to help you fund it. That’s the general way an IGEM team is made and becomes successful.“

“ reach out to other people...” find connections on or off campus regarding this type of endeavor,”

“make a team”, .. “get a professor to work”. ..with .. “perseverance you can get something running”

“ to get any investment, you'd need a detailed plan and roadmap how to achieve what you're describing, “ Find access to billionaires

hang up posters, sen out emails to the Bio and Chemical engineering clubs, and get professors to advertise as well make a go fund me page. build a research team

search “business related databases, such as ABI/Inform or Emerald Insights. Below is a link to the general business library research guide. There is a list of relevant research tools under “Databases & Websites.”

“organ systems at the macroscopic level” vs. “the work you envision involves robust molecular science”

“it is outside the scope of our senior design in terms of the facilities we have here, technical know-how, and time commitment.”

“Is this project coming from and sponsored by a company, or is this a personal project?”

“Senior Design is not appropriate for this endeavor and so I can put you in touch with our biomaterials and tissue engineering faculty researchers. They have the expertise and may be interested in pursuing this especially if you're able to secure the necessary funding.”

-universities instead of working on application for labs to have their own focus -partnerships johnson & Johnson a goal together
-licensing to government and selling cells and bio printing to customers -b2c

  • annual licensing. Placement and use of printing and research own product to consumers.
  • academic, government centers
  • contracts and commercialization
  • tissue for drugs
  • tissue for body directly (via surgery)
  • approved product insurance (copay)
  • IPO many years and investors buy and sell
  • merch or johnson & johnson

“Make sure to reach out to professors and get their approval to work with them and start a team on campus. If no professor on campus can help you”...”at the moment, your goal is unfortunately not a viable one.”

cas capstone on frankenstein quinnipiac robert smart and diane stock

quadriplegic russia CNS unsuccessful

cns numerical control numerical design procate vs universitty/government proof of concept with a patent

Organ cloning

90% failure rate through FDA, 10-12 year work, billions of dollars, preclinical, 2d cell culture and animal models. New drug application (commercial drug application) 5-8 clinical trials, preclinical trials (chemical library Safety (if unsafe FDA won't approve) efficacy 5 phases: 1. preclinical (animal testing/testing cultures), 2. human trials 1-2 years (each phase human drug interaction 1. safety 2. efficacy (dosing/what combination) 3. commercialization larger safety trial (endpoints does the drug do) each phase has clinical endpoints. Phase commercial (late clinical trial) costs become billions because doctors, surgeons reporting, fdda, drug working, r&d, manufacturing cost of licensing of a bio printing $10-100.000 accomplishing, capitalization, commercializing

angel, vc, ipo, public capital markets (stock offering, debt offersin), financial position/capital structure multiple pahses of capital infusion

free licensing depending on partnership and researching

3d printing vs tissue Patnetrs out of academic centers Living cells through bioprinting stacking asway which replicates human tissue Can’t pantent organ but technology

Material company partner with tissue company

“If you have a technology built on a scientific breakthrough, apply for funding. If you are earlier stage than that, seek funding through the government or early stage accelerators like YC.”

Partner with schools or organizations that have the same line of interests to be partners.

World’s printed heart article -

Scientists revive pig brain -

human cloning embryonic stem cells gene therapy artificial intelligence crispr technologies

DISCLAIMER: The following are quotes from email correspondence with individuals. The quotes are anonymous with credit upon request. Or if there is information you don't want, I can take it down.

Challenges (philosophical, legal, technological, economical, financial):

“transfer of consciousness, brain coding/decoding, genetic manipulation, synthetic/semi-synthetic biology”

“How many people will need to be paid, the machine needed to create it, the samples needed for tissue, are there going to be test subjects? If so how many? How much will it be for a test run? How much will it be to get this all approved by the government? Will the government even allow for someone like you to pursue this before getting shut down. There is many unanswered questions that you need to be ready for and the only way to do that is market research and reaching out to people in the fields. Contact some student that are in the nursing programs and see if you can get more info. Talk to the teachers to see if you can reach out to anyone that has ever worked on brains and knows any brain surgeons. ”


“what philosophical perspectives (if any) would one find the possibility of bio-printing humans attractive and then try to distill out the fundamental assumptions of these perspectives that make the idea attractive. The interesting aspect of the idea is that the answer to the question quickly gets at a person's assumptions on what is the purpose and meaning of human life.

One of the first questions I would ask is what would be the nature of these bioprinted humans - would the printing process have any impact on their nature - what would be their lifespan, at what "age" would they be could write some kind of SciFi script on this that would have rich philosophical overtones. Would these bioprinted beings have their own consciousness or be an effective servant to humans? What if some of these beings are morally corrupted, are they terminated, imprisoned or what? Can these bioprinted being conspire together against humans? Can one identify a nature or existence for these beings that is moral and acceptable? If so, how is that nature or existence manifested?”

“Something is natural does not mean it is moral or acceptable: we do fight cancer and cruelty, despite both being parts of natural life.”

“if we enhance ourselves we will try to control everything in our lives. Everything of ourselves will be a potential object of design and engineering, and this both will make it less authentic and make us frustrated as we constantly tinker with it”

“Would it make sense to call oneself human if one is actually moving from cortical stack to cortical stack?”

The ethical question of whether ‘bioprinting a human body’ would be socially acceptable. many inventions are owned by separate and independent companies from whom rights which would be expensive and legally challenging“

“Your motivation looks sublime but the thing is that biological body is weak and vulnerable, it suffers and does experience pain. I mentioned Altered Carbon just because the very existence of bodies provides the possibility of enslavement and oppression.”


“FDA approval is possible when doing something that can be compared to a prior technology. For something fundamentally new, FDA approval takes SO long that entrepreneurial inventors are not going to be able to financially wait long enough to achieve goals before going bankrupt.

a) computer programming (definitely G code and preferably C++, Python, and/or LabView; once you learn one, the others are straightforward.); b) Arduinos and a variety of different types of sensors; c) 3D printing; d) printing of cells in hydrogels; e) how to create the correct microenvironment for the cells; f) biomedical imaging; g) fluid flow; h) a variety of biomaterials analytical methods; and quite a few others.”

This would be shared with an ethics committee and follow multiple trials.

This case would go through the Center for Devices and Radiological Health.

The timeline is prescribed by user fees. A drug is 9 months to initial applications.

How is it provided? to whom what practice is allowed? What practice is mandatory and banned?

“What do you do with “homeless” minds? And many other issues easily come to mind: can you lose your right to have a body? Can you sell it? Rent it? Is it a bad thing that you can treat it as disposable?”

Time and research is required before these technologies will be ready to be presented for approval for use in humans by the FDA.


“Making an eyeball functional is very different than making an aesthetically pleasing one, let alone make it interface with the CNS. No one is proposing this because it is ludicrous at this stage to propose such a thing. Creating a functional nephron, that doesn't interface with the systemic circulation, which is requisite, isn't going to cut it. Don't forget about functional lungs and heart that have interplay.”

“We cannot bioprint human brains. It would be very hard. For a layman the most obvious challenge is that neurons need a continous supply of oxygen and nutrients to survive and have processes with macroscopic lengths. If printing occurs in layers, these processes would cross and perhaps records the layers.“

“We cannot, for the simple reason that neurons (the main building — block of the brain) normally do not divide. As such, we cannot spray them onto a surface, as with e.g. cartilage, and have them grow.

With the basic human architecture as we know it, this can't occur.”

“it would be about as useful as a laser printer without a cartridge!

Organs are made up of a variety of cells, arranged in specific order and patterns. You need to solve two initial problems before it makes logical sense to begin on your proposed design project:

  1. You would need large, reliable live cell supplies. Until gene splicing produces cell lines that are universally acceptable by all patients, these will have to be grown up from precursor cells derived from each patient. The biology is fairly clear for many non-matrix dependent cells; what is needed is engineering design of a cell culture system that permits fast, low cost growth of large cell volumes from such sources. For a particular cell type, the design of such a bioreactor is a possibly feasible capstone project.

  2. A much more difficult problem is this. Mammalian cells cannot survive, even without the trauma of being delivered in a bioink, if they are more than 150-200 microns separated from nutrient capillaries and lymphatic drainage vessels. The issue here is not the formation of such liquid passages but the need to have them parts of an active ex vivo circulatory system during the printing process.”

“It is definitely true that 3D printing has a lot of promise for biomedical uses, and there are many companies selling the systems as well as bioinks. However, less publicized is that there are still challenges that need to be overcome. This includes printing speed vs. resolution, but more importantly it also includes adding the critical biological components. Currently, the main groups in the field have been able to print simple, thin, hollow organs, but there is still a challenge for printing a solid organ.

It is not currently possible to print an entire body, but printing a part of an organ or focusing on one of the main challenges may be possible for a senior design project.”

“The capability to print tissue and difficulty to work with people outside a University due to IP concerns. To transfer consciousness, as opposed to copy, you'd need to functionally replace not only neurons, but also the very specific molecular configuration of connections. Each neuron can have thousands of them. (Connectomics). Even rewiring the visual cortex of a mouse from brain slices is a very difficult task, with cutting edge technology. It's like transcribing Wikipedia to cave paintings and cuneiform tablets.

“it would be easier to 3D-print certain modular parts of the brain and implant it within the natural brain, e.g. to replace injured or non-functional portions. To fully 3D-print the whole brain – or the entire person – may take yet another century to accomplish. Scientists should not wait for this to happen and should explore more realistic methods to reproduce the complexity of brain function.“

It is difficult to bioprint the human brain because..”Three answers to make it sound very simple: anatomical complexity, physiological complexity, and dynamical complexity. Note that these three types of complexity are not mutually exclusive and are truly intertwined making what’s already complex even more complex.”

““we still can’t reprint a severed finger and reattach it to full functionality. Also, no one has figured out how to print an entire human heart. And no, we can’t reprint a human brain and flip some sort of switch to turn it on. Well, at least not yet.”

“A printer is useless once it reaches a thickness of around 200µm. The printing process itself is harsh and has to be adjusted. In the end, this seems too complicated.

One could envision a pump that circulates the essentials through the de novo printed tissues. That could be a "simple" engineering problem. But the tissue still will not be natural due to the limitations of the printer: not sure proper matrix can be produced. This will alter cell behavior and functionality.

There is little hope to find good solutions in the next few years for the two challenges you have identified. Most cell types are poorly characterized, the stem cells of tissues hardly understood. Culturing and expansion introduces mutations etc etc.

Interesting first step would be to produce something better than "organs on a chip". More realistic key organs to test toxicity of drugs would be a milestone. You identified the key organs: liver, brain, kidney, heart. An organ most of the time missing due to its complexity is the immune system. Stay away from this topic due to its complexity and the many cell types within the immune system. Many years ago, it was estimated that there are about 250 cell types in the human body. That shows you the challenge for printing an entire organism. "The whole is greater than the sum of its parts". Cells interact with each other, interact with the matrix etc etc. It is amazing how far we have come but still a long way to go.”

“Bioprinting human organs is very complex. It is a feat that has not yet been achieved, in part, because we still have a great deal to learn about organogenesis and how essential aspects of organogenesis can be recapitulated to create functional tissues and organs for adults. My research focus is tissue regeneration, and I would be interested to learn more about..”

“Tissue engineering (the field devoted to constructing tissues and organs) is complex. You can print the materials (cells, etc) usually, at a basic level, but the interaction of all the different kinds of tissues and cells is still not well understood. And the ability to keep 3D structures attached and alive is not well understood. You can put all the pieces next to each other, but that does not mean that they will work. It’s a vascularization issue as well.”

We can print a bunch of stuff now, but that does not mean that it will live and work.

“There are scientific/technical, business, financial and ethical challenges. The path forward is neither near-term nor straightforward. Time and research is required before these technologies will be ready to be presented for approval for use in humans by the FDA. The ethical question of whether ‘bioprinting a human body’ would be socially acceptable. many inventions are owned by separate and independent companies from whom rights which would be expensive and legally challenging“

“It seems that stem cell research is still in its developmental stage. We have used them to recreate several tissue as your project explains, such as certain brain tissue. To be honest, we should start with bioprinting simpler tissue such as osteocytic or vascular tissue before proceeding to more complex structures. During our early embryological development, our blastula and gatrula produces such simple tissue which directly evolves from stem cells. I have read quite a bit of research articles and journals about stem cells to conclude that creating a whole human being at once might not be very easy. Typically, the cell to celebrate reactions are what induce one cell to morph in to a specialized cell. It would be difficult to achieve this in biological printing.”

Figure out the biochemistry of feelings feelings, emotions for bioprinted brain

We can print a bunch of stuff now, but that does not mean that it will live and work.

“It seems that stem cell research is still in its developmental stage. We have used them to recreate several tissue as your project explains, such as certain brain tissue. To be honest, we should start with bioprinting simpler tissue such as osteocytic or vascular tissue before proceeding to more complex structures. During our early embryological development, our blastula and gatrula produces such simple tissue which directly evolves from stem cells. I have read quite a bit of research articles and journals about stem cells to conclude that creating a whole human being at once might not be very easy. Typically, the cell to celebrate reactions are what induce one cell to morph in to a specialized cell. It would be difficult to achieve this in biological printing.”


puritanicle, “It’s a natural process”, We will run out of earths resources, economically only the rich can afford it, philosophical challenges, religious challenges, print central nervous?, print nervous cells?, blood vessels, established peer reviewed with full organ

“...think about the law of unintended consequences with respect to your proposal. To start, we are even now grappling with the question of how to care for people who, because of the advances in healthcare, are able to live much longer than their parents. Questions such as who shall pay for the services, where the funds will come from, and, if you live in a country with a single-payer system like Canada or UK, how will you ration out the limited resources available. As complicated as these issues are, think about how much more complicated they become if people could live even longer. Where will the money they need to survive come from - savings, investments, social security? to even 100 will be a financial challenge for anyone who is not in the top 10% of wage earners. What about the rest? How these questions are resolved are major societal issues and government policy questions - not something that is managed by ‘an ethics committee’. I do not doubt that scientifically/technologically we might some day be able to accomplish the advances you envision. I only question whether we are prepared for the society that results.”

Then you need to fund an infrastructure that is accessible to everyone, or at least vast segments of the population.

The US has enough issues delivering regular healthcare, and even countries with large public healthcare programs would have to invest a lot of capital in an upgrade like that.

What if someone, “cannot afford organic bodies and have to make do with shoddy robot bodies, to fancy designer-bodies for those who can afford them).”

“Longer life could have a downside”


“It's not something I can put a price on. You'd need to fund decades of expensive research.

It would easily be hundreds of billions, if not trillions, worth of contemporary USD. Well outside the range of even Musk and Branson. That's something you'd need the Pentagon, Wall Street, EU, China, or someone with similarly obscene amounts of money to invest.

What's next:'

Pitch to investors the granular deck, cash flow with projections/assumptions, business model canvas (attached), and prepare for an in-person pitch deck -

Med or grads work on this Pharmaceuticals Insurance and people paying do it Rich people Economies of scale

“incite committee, rule making, oversight, then regulation”

Credits: (useful resource?)

Other notes:

“Scholarly articles for organ bioprinting consortium

Bioprinting of human pluripotent stem cells and their … - ‎Faulkner-Jones - Cited by 116 The role of information technology in the future of 3D … - ‎Andréa Dernowsek - Cited by 3 A morphospace for synthetic organs and organoids: the … - ‎Ollé-Vila - Cited by 11 Search Results - CollPlant joins ReMDO's massive bioprinting consortium to ... Feb 22, 2018 - CollPlant, a 3D bioprinting and regenerative medicine company, has joined ... bioprinting consortium to develop bioink for 3D printed organs. HOPE (Human Organ Printing Era) | FUTURIUM | European ... › European Commission › Futurium Apr 29, 2016 - This extensive 3D bioprinting consortium will deliver significant benefits to both the European and International community, including:. 3-D bioprinting technologies in tissue engineering and regenerative ... by ES Bishop - ‎2017 - ‎Cited by 4 - ‎Related articles 3D bioprinting holds great promise for regenerative medicine applications (see Fig. 1). ..... Atala and colleagues, for example, are utilizing an “integrated tissue-organ ... the Chicago Biomedical Consortium with support from the Searle Funds at ... 3D bioprinting – Human Toxicology Project Consortium Posts about 3D bioprinting written by htpconsortium. ... Some stories on organs-on-chips and 3D bioprinting from just the last few weeks: The Economist: ... Images for organ bioprinting consortium

Credit for a couple of the philosophy challenge questions:

More images for organ bioprinting consortiumReport images organs-on-chips – Human Toxicology Project Consortium Posts about organs-on-chips written by htpconsortium. ... Some stories on organs-on-chips and 3D bioprinting from just the last few weeks: The Economist: ... DoD Funds New Tissue Biofabrication Manufacturing Consortium ... › News Dec 22, 2016 - Frank Kendall introduced the winning consortium -- led by the ... through bioprinting are enabling them to more effectively reproduce ... many Americans who've spent far too long on the organ-transplant waiting list,” he added. Tissue and Organ 3D Bioprinting - Zengmin Xia, Sha Jin, Kaiming Ye ... by Z Xia Feb 23, 2018 - Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting enables the creation of tissue constructs with heterogeneous compositions and complex architectures. Missing: consortium ‎| ‎Must include: ‎consortium (PDF) 3D Bioprinting for Tissue and Organ Fabrication - ResearchGate Jun 14, 2018 - 3D Bioprinting with dECM bioinks of different tissue constructs. (A) · Figure 4. ...... Similar with other organ bioprinting, one major challenge in bioprinting 3D cartilage tissues ...... For this purpose, the consortium will…" [more].”

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