Actions of war to conquer, in the 16th century, some parts of New Spain (today Mexico) and others of the kingdom of Guatemala (today Central America)

According to what was narrated by Bernal Díaz del Castillo in his work entitled True History of the Conquest of New Spain (Madrid: Espasa-Calpe, year 1928, vol. II, pp. 225, 226-239) after Hernán Cortés had populated the great city of Mexico, Guaxaca, Zacatula, Colimar, Veracruz, Pánuco and Guazacualco, he had news that in the province of Guatemala there were large towns and many people, so he agreed to send his conquest and population to Pedro de Alvarado.

For that trip he gave him "over three hundred soldiers, and among them one hundred and twenty gunmen and crossbowmen, plus he gave him one hundred and thirty-five horsemen and four shots, and a lot of gunpowder, and an artilleryman who called himself so and so of Osagre," and over two hundred Tascaltecas and Cholutecas, and one hundred Mexicans who were outstanding (...) and (...) certain languages ​​and clerics who had (...) already fired Pedro de Alvarado de Cortés and all his gentlemen friends that there was in Mexico, they said goodbye to each other, and he left that city on the thirteenth day of November, one thousand five hundred and twenty-three years (...) ".

De Alvarado himself also conquered, in the middle of 1524, the city of Cuzcatlán, today the Republic of El Salvador. (Old book of the founding of Guatemala and papers related to Don Pedro de Alvarado, Guatemala City, National Typography, July 1934, "Goathemala" Library of the Society of Geography and History, vol. XII, pp. 279 and 280)

In the designated year of 1524, Bernal Díaz del Castillo came from Las Higueras and Honduras to Guatemala (Díaz del Castillo, loc. cit., Vol. II, p. 233) with Captain Luis Marín, heading to Mexico, at which time Cortés was considered dead and also all those who with him, including Díaz del Castillo, had gone with him to Las Higueras and Honduras, and had been in Guazacualco with him, from whom both Díaz del Castillo and Marín had received the order to leave for the pacification of the province of Chiapa and the provision of 30 horse soldiers and 100 laborers, some of whom were crossbowmen and gunmen, not excluding two artillery shots, with a message of ammunition and gunpowder. that this foot of the army left to fulfill its mission on December 8, 1523. (Díaz del Castillo, loc. cit., vol. II, pp. 233, 234, 239 and 315 and Heinrich Berlin, "El Asiento de Chiapa ", Annals of the Society of Geography and History of Guatemala, t. XXXI, January-December 1958, numbers d 1 to 4, pp. 19 and 27)

Regarding the conquest of the provinces of Las Higueras and Honduras, Bernal Díaz del Castillo (ob. cit., Vol. II, pp. 234 ff.) Indicates that Cortés had news that there were rich lands and good mines in it. from Higueras and Honduras, for which he sent Cristóbal de Olid as captain for that day, for whose transport and that of his troops, made up of 370 soldiers and five conquerors, he gave him five ships and a brig, very well armed.

He and his army landed 15 leagues ahead of Puerto Caballos (today Puerto Cortés, Honduras) on May 3, 1524, but they did not conquer anything, since De Olid rose up with the army and with all the soldiers, until they wounded him with knives. Notary public, and after being processed, they killed the beheaded in the Plaza de Naco, so the one who was conquering the province of Honduras, at the time that Cristóbal de Olid arrived, especially the Pechín river region, which flows into the Golfo Dulce, was Captain Gil González de Ávila, also governor there, who after being released from the prison in which he was placed by De Olid, along with Captain Francisco de las Casas, who had also been as De Olid's prisoner, and later released, were the ones who continued with the conquest of Honduras, taking charge of that of Trujillo Francisco de las Casas. (Díaz del Castillo, loc. cit., T. II, pp. 305, 313, 315, 316, 317, 369 and 372)

Another of the conquerors of Honduras was Captain Gonzalo de Sandoval, who, with his soldiers, including Bernal Díaz del Castillo, went from the town or seat of Naco, where Cristóbal de Olid was executed, to the towns known as Girimonga and Azula, and three other towns that were near Naco, and all its inhabitants came to give obedience to the King of Spain, and later they went on to conquer other towns and Quimistán, today a town belonging to the jurisdiction of the department of Santa Bárbara, republic of Honduras, while Cortés continued with the conquest of Puerto de Caballos, or Puerto Caballos, in the company of doña Marina (Malinche) and that of four towns in Trujillo, among which Olancho is also counted. (Díaz del Castillo, ob. cit., T. II, pp. 367, 368, 369, 370, 371 and 372)

Pedrarias de Ávila, Governor of Tierra Firme, sent Captain Francisco Hernández to conquer and pacify the lands of Nicaragua, and to discover others, and gave him "copies of soldiers on horseback as well as crossbowmen; and he arrived at the provinces of Nicaragua and León, which they called them, which he pacified and populated ". (Díaz del Castillo, op. cit., T. II, p. 376)

Other conquests of the territories that today are part of Central America were carried out in much more recent times, among which it is worth noting that of Petén, today a department of the Republic of Guatemala, executed by the Royal Armies of His Majesty Católica, the military operations begins in January 1697, the month in which General Don Martín de Urzúa sent before him, throughout the entire population of the province of Yucatán, the people and infantry troops, with their corporals and officers, all the train with the heavy artillery, impedimenta of the troops and the maestranza - workshop - in charge of manufacturing the boats destined for the navigation of the Itzá lagoon - currently nominated as Lake of Petén Itzá - and on January 24 This general left Campeche in pursuit with the horsemen and his entourage. (Edgar Juan Aparicio y Aparicio, marquis of Vistabella, and Luis Alfonso Ortega Aparicio, History and Genealogy of the Sáenz de Tejada family, San José Pinula, Guatemala, computer edition, 12-5-2017, p. 353)

(Ilustration by José Narro)

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